See extract of this 2011 UNICEF survey for developing an O&M system in Sierra Leone:
4.1.4 Public/private sector supply chains
This model has been successfully implemented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa (Oyo, 2006). Although its implementation depends on a number of variables, it eliminates some of the constraints inherent in the other two models. In Malawi, Bertrand de Saint Meloir (2009) documented a model in which an NGO, InterAide, provided an initial stock of spare parts, a display shelf, advertisement posters and fliers for shop owners, who have to maintain their spare parts stock at an agreed minimal level (equivalent to the starter pack value). The shop owner (private investor) has to sell to the communities at prices fixed by the project and indicated on the shelf and use the triplicate cash receipt provided by the project. Here, use is made of an established private sector operator, who is already involved in the provision of water services and has the requisite financial support and potential commercial incentive to support the spare parts network (Oyo, 2006).
The success of this model also depends on the basic private sector requirement of adequate demand predicated on high population of potential customers. Government’s role in this is not only to regulate but to influence market incentives to encourage private sector activity, by helping to create an enabling environment for business. Although this study has as its overarching objective an assessment of the type of supply chain model to be adopted in Sierra Leone, the involvement of UNICEF in providing an initial stock and the construction of spare parts stores in all districts of the country points to a public/private sector led supply chain, with the private sector expected to be involved probably as supplier or retailer. Whatever arrangement is put in place UNICEF must recover its initial cost or seed money.